Saturday, May 23, 2020
Hayden Santiago 10/11/2017 ID 100602667 Soc. 1 FY40 Sociological Imagination The Sociological Imagination, by C. Wright Mills, was a statement that questioned the developing field of sociology, challenging sociologists and the public to take seriously the rise of elites and the decline of American democracy, American community, and American equality. Mills argues that the sociological imagination is a quality of mind necessary to the understanding of the human condition. The human condition refers to the characteristics, key events, and situations which compose the essentials of human existence. Those consist of birth,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A few things that the sociological imagination helps us understand about our society is that humans need to realize and understand how their own lives are influenced, shaped and constrained by social forces, and in order to understand how society shapes our personal lives, we need to think about how we are shaped by technology every day, by the economy, family and even the political system. He also teaches u s about the differences between personal problems and issues in our society in general. For example, if one person is unemployed, that is only the problem for that person. But if 5-10% of the labor force is unemployed, we know weÃ¢â¬â¢re looking at a social problem. We also get a big understanding of our personal lives. Ã¢â¬Å"For sociologists, the individual is a product of social relations, of social interaction, and of society itself, at a specific historical time period,Ã¢â¬ meaning that we the people were made by society itself. To him, improving the human condition meant that we would have to democratize our American society, our social institutions, our class and political system, our workplaces, family life, racism, patriarchy, humanShow MoreRelatedThe Sociological Imagination By C. Wright Mills857 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe sociological imagination is simply the act of having the capacity to think ourselves away from the commonplace schedules of our day by day lives kee ping in mind the end goal to take a gander at them with a new perspective. C. Wright Mills, who made the idea and composed a book about it, characterized the sociological creative ability as the clear attention to the connection amongst encounter and the more extensive society. The sociological imagination is the capacity to see things sociallyRead MoreSociological Imagination By C. Wright Mills969 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages C. Wright Mills defined sociological imagination as the awareness of the relationship between personal experience and the wider society. Understanding and being able to exercise the sociological imagination helps us understand the relationship between the individual and society. Mills focuses on the distinction between personal troubles and public issues. Having sociological imagination is critical for individual people and societies at large to understand. It is important that people areRead MoreThe Sociological Imagination : C. Wright Mills907 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesindividual s life a person will experience what C. Wright Mills refers to as the trap. The trap alludes to a person that can only see and understand their own small scope of life. Their frame of reference is limited to their day to day life and personal experiences that are directly related to them, they cannot see the bigger picture. They do not yet know that the sociological imagination can set them free from this trap and as C. Wright Mills said, In many ways it is a terrible lesson; in manyRead MoreThe Sociological Imagination By C. Wright Mills1315 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The sociological imagination enables us to grasp history and biography and the relations between the two within society. This is its task and its promise.Ã¢â¬ C. Wright Mills writes about the sociological imagination in an attempt to have society become aware of the relationship between oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal experience in comparison to the wider society. By employing the sociological imaginati on into the real world, individuals are forced to perceive, from a neutral position, social structures that, inRead MoreThe Sociological Imagination By C. Wright Mills986 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMills Chapter Summary Ã¢â¬Å"Yet Men do not usually define the troubles they endure in terms of historical change and institution contradiction.Ã¢â¬ Stated from chapter one of Ã¢â¬Å"The Classic Readings in SociologyÃ¢â¬ which was based on Ã¢â¬Å"The Sociology ImaginationÃ¢â¬ by C. Wright Mills. As our Sociology 131 class study the works of C. Wright Mills, we learn and examine his views. We learn how he view other things such as marriage, war, and the limitations of men. His view of war is that both sides playRead MoreSociological Imagination By C. Wright Mills942 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSociological imagination according to C. Wright Mills (1959) Ã¢â¬Å"enables its possessor to understand the larger historical scene in terms of its meaning for the inner life and the external career of a variety of individualsÃ¢â¬ (p.5) Mills in this book of The Sociological Imagination explains how society shapes the people. Mills wants people to be able to use sociological imagination to see things in a sociology point of view, so they can know the difference between personal troubles versus personal issuesRead MoreSociological Imagination, By C. Wright Mills Essay1611 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesI SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION CONCEPTUALIZATION As conceived by C. Wright Mills, sociological imagination is the mental ability to establish intelligible relations among social structure and personal biography that is observing and seeing the impact of society over our private lives. Sociological imagination helps an individual to understand on a much larger scale the meaning and effect of society on of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s daily life experience. People blame themselves for their own personal problems and they themselvesRead MoreThe Sociological Imagination, By C. Wright Mills799 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The sociological imagination, a concept used by C. Wright Mills, is essentially the ability to perceive a situation or act in a much larger social context as well as examining the situation or act from many perspectives. In particular, it plays a paramount role in Donna Gaines Teenage Wasteland. It is a tragic story of 4 teens who together, committed suicide. The teens were deemed as Ã¢â¬Å"dropouts, druggiesÃ¢â¬ [Teenage Wasteland 8.2 ] by newspapers and were still treated with disdain even after theirRead MoreThe Sociological Imagination : C. Wright Mills1822 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesC. Wright Mills defines the sociological imagination as, Ã¢â¬Å"what they need, and what they feel they need, is a quality of mind that will help them to use information and to develop reason in order to achieve lucid summations of what is going on in the world and of what may be happening within themselvesÃ¢â¬ . Mills also says that the sociological imagination enables us to grasp history and biography and the relations between the two within society. When I read Chapter One: The Promise from C. WrightRead MoreThe Sociological Imagination, By C. Wright Mills1692 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesentire life, can be determined by examining his or her intellect, high school performance, and talents. However, C. Wright Mills proposes a new approach to this idea in his work, Ã¢â¬Å"The Promise.Ã¢â¬ Mills presents an idea known as the sociological imagination, which examines society on a larger scale to better grasp an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life circumstances (Mills 2). The sociological imagination examines the role of social forces on the lives of individuals (Butler-Sweet, September 5, 2017). For example,
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Latina Recently, the Latino population in the US has become the largest ethnic group. According to the Census data, the Latino population grew by 58% from 1990 to 2000, whereas the total population grew by 13% in the same period (Skogrand, 2005). The number is estimated to be much larger but due to their undocumented status many Latino people did not participate during the 2000 census. We will write a custom essay sample on Young Latina Mothers or any similar topic only for you Order Now The term Ã¢â¬Å"LatinoÃ¢â¬ includes a wide variety of immigrant subgroups that speak Spanish, and encompasses a number of groups from Central and South Americas, with migrants from Mexico, Puerto Rico and Cuba being the largest, and Ã¢â¬Å"LatinaÃ¢â¬ is the feminine form. Young Latino Mothers A research conducted by Berkowitz and Kahn (1995) titled, Sources of Support for Young Latina Mothers, highlighted the plight of young Latina mothers in the US and ways to address their problems. Due to high rates of immigration and fertility of young Latina women, which is twice compared to the rest of the US population, their numbers are growing rapidly. According Berkowitz and Kahn, many young mothers and their children are poor, and young mothers who raise their children independently bear the brunt of hardship compared to those who live with husbands or parents or other adults who are financially sound. However, neither getting married nor outside support to cushion the young mothers from poverty and other adverse affects. There is no single to pattern to describe Latina mothers as they are diverse; however, there are certain features each of the subgroups. Puerto Rican mothers are impoverished compared with other groups, remain single, live away from parents or relatives, and are welfare dependents. Cuban mothers are economically well off with low rates of welfare benefits. Central and South American mothers living patterns are similar to Anglos, though they are poorer to the Anglos. Young teenage mothers who raise the children on their own are found to be the most vulnerable. Teen mothers who live with their parents and relatives tend to remain in school and less likely to be poor. Married teen mothers are better off compared to single teen mothers who live with relatives or parents. However, married teen mothers are less likely to attend school than unmarried, resulting in lower education levels. Mothers who delayed their first births after the teen years had done well compared to parents who became teen mothers Ã¢â¬â they completed school and college. Social and cultural influences Acculturation and biculturalism, according to several researchers, influence the parenting style among young mothers. Acculturation is the process in which an individual acquires the skills required for life in a new environment. Hence, the impact of acculturation has altered traditional gender roles that resulted in women taking up employment, yet they fall into low income groups. Latinas who are less acculturated have traditional gender role beliefs, whereas more acculturated Latinas see more life choices (Latina Adolescent Health, 2007). Within the community, there are large cultural differences, however, there are commonalities within many Latino families. According to research the Latino families give importance to family, religion and gender roles. The importance of the family is the pervasive value in the Latino culture, extended family is essential. Both parenthood and partnerships are considered to be same as family affiliations are given importance. The main purpose of the marriage is to have children and the subsequent family life. Traditional roles play a critical role in reinforcing the gender roles: Machismo alludes to maleness or manliness and a man is expected to be physically strong, authority figure in the family who sustains the family. On the contrary, the role of the woman is complementary or Marianismo, who is self-sacrificing, religions and a homemaker. In Latino culture, motherhood for women is an important goal, apart from taking care of the elderly relatives and children. The importance of family and motherhood in the culture encourages young Latinas to become mothers during their teenage years. Due to high value for motherhood in Latino culture, young women do not see pregnancy negatively. Latino cultural traditions are found to be barriers to young womenÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to communicate openly with their partners. Some young women have babies with a hope that will bring attention from babyÃ¢â¬â¢s father, and later he will take up the responsibility of fatherhood; in Latino culture he is the sustainer of the family. They have the highest unmarried birthrate in the nation, over three times that of whites and Asians, and nearly one-and-a half times that of African-American women. Nearly half of the children of Latina mothers are born out of wedlock, and there is no sign lessening of the rate as there numbers are increasing rapidly. This is due to one of the traditional Hispanic values to have children and often. It is seen as a honorable thing for a young girl to have a baby, and it is difficult to persuade young single mothers to give up children for adoption. The tight-knit extended family assists unwed child rearing. Documenting fathers of illegitimate children is problematic as the impregnators of younger women are sometimes their uncles, boyfriend of the girlÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, older men who have a false notion that virgins are not capable of motherhood and who avoid sexually transmitted diseases.Ã Often, the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s family do not view see anything bad of these activities (Mac Donald, 2006). Although older men take advantage of younger women, the age difference between the mother and the father of an illegitimate is child is narrowing. An agency in California found that fathers as young as 13 to 14 years of age and it quite common to find an 18-year-old to have children with different girls, and boys feel getting a girl pregnant is peer approval thing. A large majority of fathers abandon their children and mothers, for a father may be already married or doing drugs or in prison. Though they know about the fathersÃ¢â¬â¢ whereabouts but do not know if they are working or in jail. The young womenÃ¢â¬â¢s mothers are callous and overlook what is happening in their daughtersÃ¢â¬â¢ lives, and the existing social milieu perpetuates the child-bearing activities. References Berkowitz, R. ; Kahn, J. (1995). Sources of support for young Latina mothers. Retrieved on June 19, 2007, from http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/cyp/xslatina.htm Latina Adolescent Health. (2007). Retrieved on June 19, 2007, from http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/publications/iag/latina.htm Mac Donald, H. (2006). Hispanic Family Values? Hispanic trending. Retrieved on June 19, 2007, from http://juantornoe.blogs.com/hispanictrending/2006/11/hispanic_family.html Skogrand, L. (2005). Understanding Latino families, implications for family education. Retrieved on June 19, 2007, from Utah State University, Extension Web site: http://extension.usu.edu/files/publications/publication/FR_Family_2005-02.pdf ; ; How to cite Young Latina Mothers, Essay examples
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Influence of Environmental Customer. Answer: Introduction: The customers of the restaurants are mainly composed of people who are from various economic, cultural and ethnic backgrounds and have their own preferences in choosing their restaurants. These different attributes help the customers in having their own preferences over the restaurants. The criteria on which the customers select their restaurants have to be analyzed in a proper manner by the restaurateurs so that it can help them in attracting more number of customers (Taylor Aday, 2016). The quality of service that is provided within the restaurants are linked with the satisfaction of the customers in a direct manner, which helps in maintaining the chain of profits for the restaurants. Better quality of service by the employees help in achieving higher level of satisfaction from the customers, which further results in high patronage and generation of revenue for the restaurants as well. The quality of service that is provided by the restaurants help them in gaining a competitive edge over the rival organizations, as most of the customers will prefer in choosing the good restaurants over the other ones (Li, Ye Law, 2013). The quality of the food is another factor that influences the selection of the restaurant by the customers. The taste of the food along with the choice of the ingredients has an important role in the choice of the restaurants by the customers (Shani et al., 2014). The menus that are provided by the restaurants are developed in a new manner on a frequent basis so that the customers can change their choices, which will help in changing the taste patterns of the customers. This will also help in increasing the frequency of the customers of coming in to the restaurant (Ye et al., 2014). This will help the managers and the employees of the restaurants in understanding the quality of food that will influence the customers in selecting their restaurants. Apart from this, the customers feel superior if the restaurants have a better ambience along with good dcor, which will help them in suiting their needs. These factors help in gaining the satisfaction of the customers, which will help the r estaurants in providing better services to the customers (Shani et al., 2014). The primary purpose of the research is to identify the popularity of the customers in eating out at the restaurants that offer a formal service to the customers. Recently, it can be seen that there has been an increase in the rate of growth in the influx of the customers in the restaurants. It can be seen that the major attributes for this is the change in the taste and preference of the customers in their eating habits and in trying out different cuisines so that they can be explored in a better way (Jani Han, 2014). What are the attributes that has helped in determining the choices of restaurants by the customers? What are the services that are provided by the hotels so that the customers can be satisfied? The income or the profit of the restaurants depend on the level of loyalty that the customers have on them so that the products and services that are being offered by them can be patronized and is consistent for the future. The satisfaction that is derived by the customers along with the patronage is some of the major indicators that help the restaurants in reviewing their performance (Tan, Hussain Murali, 2014). Apart from these, the system that is oriented towards decisions and experiential are also associated with the performance of the restaurants. It can be further noted that the impact on the satisfaction level of the consumers also creates an impact on the purchasing pattern so that the expectation of the customers related to the hotel can be maximized (Jani Han, 2015). Dimensions of quality service in restaurants The quality of service in a restaurant is mainly dependent on three basic dimensions, which are service, atmosphere and hygiene (Manhas Tukamushaba, 2015). It is seen that the customers may find the restaurant very attractive if these dimensions or attributes are met in a proper manner. The factor of hygiene has to be maintained so that it can help the customers in getting a better ambience when they enter the restaurant for the first time (Jani Han, 2014). The factor of hygiene will help the customers in becoming regular towards the restaurant, as they will get attracted towards the restaurant if the atmosphere provided by them maintains a hygienic atmosphere in the restaurant. The service that is provided by the restaurant will help in ensuring that the level of satisfaction among the customers can be met in a proper manner (Singh et al., 2017). The menu and the price that is being offered by the restaurant have to be competitive so that they can attract the customers towards themselves. This will help the restaurants in increasing their profits, which will help in generating better revenues. The menu that will be provided by the restaurant will help in defining the cuisine that the restaurant wants to serve to its customers. This will help the restaurants in defining their cuisines and the interested customers will target these restaurants for their choice of food (Albayrak Caber, 2015). The quality of service is dependent on two variables that is the actual outcome and the perception of the final result by the consumer (Shani et al., 2014). The quality of service is a phenomenon that is tremendously increasing in the restaurant so that it can be measured and evaluated. It is a function that helps in analyzing the result between the performance and the expectation of the customers (Yap, 2015). It is also one of the effective methods that will help in managing the processes of business and ensure that the satisfaction among the customers is high so that the employees in the restaurant can get motivated in serving the organization in a better way (Kim Brymer, 2016). Quality of the product It is one of the primary attributes that will help in satisfying the demands and the needs of the customers. The main product that the customers want to have a look in to is the quality of the food that is being processed by the organization. This will help the restaurant in attracting more number of customers. It can be seen that there exists a positive relationship between the quality of the food and the level of satisfaction that is derived by the customers after it is consumed. This is one of the primary factors, which along with the other attributes will help the customers in deriving satisfaction by the customer (Manhas Tukamushaba, 2015). It is a variable that can be considered as monetary, sacrifice that the customers do so that they can gain the best quality of service from the organization. The pricing of the products helps in understanding the core values of the restaurants so that it can help in setting up the prices in an effective manner for the customers. It will also act as a measurement through which the expense on certain products and services can be evaluated, which will help in changing the attitude of the consumers towards the product (Kim Brymer, 2016). Increasing the Customer Retention Rate in the Restaurant The attraction of new importance is important is key to the success of the restaurant business (Yap, 2015). The management of the eatery houses tries to increase their brand image to the customers by offering them a variety of products and quality services. Some of the steps taken by the different restaurants include; Outstanding service provided to the customers- As mentioned earlier in this particular research providing an outstanding service to the individuals, creating a great ambience providing exclusive food items at an affordable price is utmost important for the restaurant to retain the customers of the organization (Han Hyun, 2017). The management of the restaurant has to make sure that the customers feel special every time they visit the restaurant. The quality, quantity of the food, service quality and the star ratings are many such factors that determine the service of the restaurant to the customers. The prompt response of the orders, an ideal waiter to table ratio helps the company to provide ultimate service to the customers and gain and retain their loyalty. Establishing a great personal Relationship- The management of the restaurant maintains a great personal relationship with the customers of the restaurant both loyal and trusted customers as well as new range of customers (Jani Han, 2014). Welcoming the customers by greeting them with a smile helps to lift off the initial tension from both the customers as well as the restaurant workers. The customers feel at home if the waiters or other workers in the restaurant remember their names and also know the favorite cuisine that they like the most (Yap, 2015). Effective Customer Relationship Management- The integration of the latest CRM softwares in the management of the business helps the business to retain the customers and engage with them in a proper way (Yap, 2015). The CRM software comprise a large number of database that consists the different information related to the contact details, birthdays, anniversaries or any other special days of the customer. The restaurant may offer special discount to the particular member to make them loyal and trusted customers. Creating a customer Feedback- Customer Feedback is one of the main elements of operating a successful hospitality business (Jani Han, 2014). A restaurant must have a proper customer feedback program that helps to ensure the choice of the consumers over a product or a particular service, the feedback on the necessary changes that needs to be taken care of by the management and many more as such. Apart from the uses of the restaurant itself the feedback makes the customers feel valued about themselves (Shani et al., 2014). The feedback program helps the organization to immediately solve customer disputes according to the demands of the customers. Online Marketing- Globalization has pushed the limits of every products and services. The presence of online platforms as well as social media platforms that provide a large range of advertisement for the products and services of the restaurant. The users can also post their reviews in the online sites about the service quality and the food quality of the particular restaurant (Han Hyun, 2017). The restaurant management can send a SMS or send an e mail to the user who might have stopped visiting the restaurant and requesting him to come to the restaurant. The email can be provided a personal touch by providing some special discounts on the final bill to the old and loyal customers. Organizing events- Hosting different events can be of much help as because the events help the organization to attract a large number of customers who are interested in different cultural events like music and dancing. Stand up comedies, exotic dances, magic shows are quite enjoyed by the organizations (Jani Han, 2014). Conclusion The researcher has been able to meet the aims and objective of the research. The thorough analysis of the report will provide the readers with the glimpse of the management of the restaurant in the market and its literary works that will be useful for any future research on this particular topic. The thorough analysis of the report will be helpful for a glimpse into the management of the restaurant and its policies by which it retains customers. The research that has been done in the following piece of report is very much important as because the particular topic was unexplored since a long time. The future researchers will now find it easy to refer to this particular work. Reference List Albayrak, T., Caber, M. (2015). Prioritisation of the hotel attributes according to their influence on satisfaction: A comparison of two techniques.Tourism Management,46, 43-50. Han, H., Hyun, S. S. (2017). Impact of hotel-restaurant image and quality of physical-environment, service, and food on satisfaction and intention.International Journal of Hospitality Management,63, 82-92. Jani, D., Han, H. (2014). Personality, satisfaction, image, ambience, and loyalty: Testing their relationships in the hotel industry.International Journal of Hospitality Management,37, 11-20. Jani, D., Han, H. (2015). Influence of environmental stimuli on hotel customer emotional loyalty response: Testing the moderating effect of the big five personality factors.International Journal of Hospitality Management,44, 48-57. Khozaei, F., Nazem, G., Ramayah, T., Naidu, S. (2016). Factors Predicting Travelers Satisfaction of Three to Five Star Hotels in Asia, an Online Review.International Journal of Research in Tourism and Hospitality,2(2), 30-41. Kim, W. G., Li, J. J., Brymer, R. A. (2016). The impact of social media reviews on restaurant performance: The moderating role of excellence certificate.International Journal of Hospitality Management,55, 41-51. Li, H., Ye, Q., Law, R. (2013). Determinants of customer satisfaction in the hotel industry: an application of online review analysis.Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research,18(7), 784-802. Manhas, P. S., Tukamushaba, E. K. (2015). Understanding service experience and its impact on brand image in hospitality sector.International Journal of Hospitality Management,45, 77-87. Rani, P. (2014). Factors influencing consumer behaviour.International journal of current research and academic review,2(9), 52-61. Rashid, I. M. A., Rani, M. J. A., Yusuf, B. N. M., Shaari, M. S. (2015). The impact of service quality and customer satisfaction on customer's loyalty: evidence from fast food restaurant of malaysia.International Journal of Information, Business and Management,7(4), 201. Shani, A., Uriely, N., Reichel, A., Ginsburg, L. (2014). Emotional labor in the hospitality industry: The influence of contextual factors.International Journal of Hospitality Management,37, 150-158. Singh, H., Saufi, R. A., Tasnim, R., Hussin, M. (2017). The Relationship Between Employee Job Satisfaction, Perceived Customer Satisfaction, Service Quality, and Profitability in Luxury Hotels in Kuala Lumpur.Prabandhan: Indian Journal of Management,10(1), 26-39. Tan, A. L., Hussain, K., Murali, S. (2014).Antecedents affecting employee service recovery performance in five star hotel(pp. 1-17). Australian Academy of Business and Social Sciences. Taylor, D. C., Aday, J. B. (2016). Consumer generated restaurant ratings: A preliminary look at OpenTable. com.Journal of New Business Ideas and Trends,14(1), 14-23. Yap, L. H. (2015).Factors influencing customer re-patronage behavior: The mediating effect of customer satisfaction(Doctoral dissertation, Universiti Utara Malaysia). Ye, Q., Li, H., Wang, Z., Law, R. (2014). The influence of hotel price on perceived service quality and value in e-tourism: an empirical investigation based on online traveler reviews.Journal of Hospitality Tourism Research,38(1), 23-39.
Sunday, March 22, 2020
Thursday, March 5, 2020
BUSINESS ETHICS essay part 2 BUSINESS ETHICS essay part 2 BUSINESS ETHICS essay part 2BUSINESS ETHICS essay part 13) What are the Virtues of a Capitalist Free Market System? What is the Marxist criticism of such a system as exemplified by the Capitalist system? Does it follow then that if Marxism is correct that Capitalism is inherently flawed? How does Capitalism provide a Moral defense of its system?Ã The Virtues of a Capitalist Free Market System include the set of morally justified principles which aim at the justification of the capitalist system and making this system grounded on moral principles (De George 115). In this regard, one of the main virtues of a capitalist free market system is the free and fair competition which implies that all individuals have equal opportunities but some of them just fail to exercise their opportunities, whereas others use the full potential of their opportunities that bring them success and wealth. Furthermore, the Virtues of a Capitalist Free Market System imply that the market develops freely wit hout any regulations (De George 118). Therefore, there are no external powers or factors that may influence the position of individuals or actions of moral agents. In other words, the capitalist system implies the free development of individuals which are not bound by any regulations imposed on them by the government, for instance. As a result, individuals being absolutely free cannot complain on the system because this system turns out to be regulated by natural market laws but not written laws imposed on individuals by the government or other authorities. In this regard, Marxism criticizes the major flaw of capitalism which is the class antagonism and the oppression of the class of oppressed by the class of oppressors, whereas oppressors accumulate their wealth at costs of the class of oppressed by means of the full control over means of production, whereas oppressed have nothing but their labor which is their only source of income (De George 122). In such a way, Marxism reveals t he intrinsic inequality between people in the capitalist system and the gap between social classes cannot be bridged, unless the social revolution occurs and leads to redistribution of power and change of the classes of oppressors and oppressed or the creation of the classless society. In response to such criticism, the capitalism provides the moral defense grounded on the initial equality of all people and persisting equal opportunities for all people because formally every individual has a chance to become rich and prosperous, if he/she has a good business idea, for instance. In such a way, the capitalism attempts to justify the possible inequality of individuals in their socioeconomic standing by the lack of abilities, while formally all of them have equal opportunities to exercise their abilities and available resources to reach success. However, this argument is not always effective and persuading, when confronted by Marxist ideas which reveal the essence of inequality based on the difference in the access to the means of production (De George 124). To put it more precisely, Marxists stand on the ground that people cannot exercise equal opportunities because they do not have equal access to the means of production. For instance, if a person invents a technological innovation allowing him/her to manufacture a new product, he/she holds the full control over the means of production because he owns the production line he/she has created his/her write to own it is protected by law in the capitalist system. As a result, the public cannot exercise benefits from this invention starting its mass production because the owner of the innovation is the only proprietor of the means of production and new technology. The inventor does not make his/her innovation available to the public production. Instead, he/she retains the full control over the production and means of production. In such a situation, employees have to work for the owner of the means of production to ma nufacture the innovative product and they cannot start the production of the similar product or the same product because they do not own the means of production. The only thing they own is their labor. Thus, Marxists reject the moral defense of Capitalism and insist that Capitalism is the unfair and unjust social system, where the inequality of the class of oppressors and the class of oppressed cannot be eliminated otherwise but by means of the social revolution.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Management Theory And Practice - Essay Example Management is the dynamic, life-giving element in every business. Without it the resources of production remain resources and never become production." (Sharma, 2004 11) This definition emphasizes that the managers achieve organizational objectives getting things done through the employees. Human resource Management is very essential for successful running of an enterprise. It ensures proper use of physical and human resources by deriving the best results. It leads to efficient performance and higher productivity. Human Resource Management is very essential for every organization to make productive use of human physical and financial resources or the achievement of the organizational goals. It helps in determination of objectives. No organization can succeed in tits mission unless its objectives an identified and well denied. Management helps in achieving these objectives by the efficient use of resources. "Planning is the selection and relating of facts and making and using of assumptions regarding the future in the visualization and formalization of proposed activities believed necessary to achieve desired results" (Sharma, 2004 26). Planning is straightforward, and the process of planning can be summarized in five steps, which can be adapted to suit any planning activity at any level in the organization with the support of highly skilled individuals. (Yvonne 28) Assess... Policies, procedures and rules are often referred to as standing plans; they are automatically activated when certain events occur. The Planning Process Planning is straightforward, and the process of planning can be summarized in five steps, which can be adapted to suit any planning activity at any level in the organization with the support of highly skilled individuals. (Yvonne 28) Step 1 Establish a goal, or a number of goals. Planning begins with defining what the organization wants to achieve. Being as specific as possible, and establishing priorities will assist the organization in focusing its efforts. Step 2 Assess the present situation and forecast the future situation. The current situation needs to be assessed and analyzed before future activity can be investigated. Questions such as 'How far is the organization away from its goals 'And 'What resources does it have to reach the goals' need to be addressed. A SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis needs to be undertaken. This involves identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the organization and determining the opportunities available to the organization and the threats it faces Step 3 Develop and evaluate alternatives. After auditing the resources of the organization and making forecasts, it is likely that there will be several courses of action, which could accomplish the organization's goals. These must be carefully evaluated. Step 4 Implement the plan. Once the choice has been made from the various alternatives, the plan can be drawn up and implemented. However, planning alone is not a guarantee of success. Success depends on the effective implementation of the plan, and involves management skills in organizing, staffing, leading and